Routine monitoring of occurrence, levels and mechanisms of insecticide resistance informs effective management strategies, and should be used to assess the effect of new tools on resistance. As part of a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a novel insecticide-based intervention in central Côte d'Ivoire, we assessed resistance and its underlying mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations from a subset of trial villages. Resistance to multiple insecticides in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii was detected across villages, with dose-response assays demonstrating extremely high resistance intensity to the pyrethroid deltamethrin (> 1,500-fold), and mortality following exposure to pyrethroid-treated bednets was low (< 30% mortality in cone bioassays). The 1014F kdr mutation was almost fixed (≥ 90%) in all villages but the 1575Y kdr-amplifying mutation was relatively rare (< 15%). The carbamate and organophosphate resistance-associated Ace-1 G119S mutation was also detected at moderate frequencies (22-43%). Transcriptome analysis identified overexpression of P450 genes known to confer pyrethroid resistance (Cyp9K1, Cyp6P3, and Cyp6M2), and also a carboxylesterase (COEAE1F) as major candidates. Cyp6P3 expression was high but variable (up to 33-fold) and correlated positively with deltamethrin resistance intensity across villages (r2 = 0.78, P = 0.02). Tools and strategies to mitigate the extreme and multiple resistance provided by these mechanisms are required in this area to avoid future control failures.