Finite Element Modelling of High-Frequency Eddy Current for CFRP's Orientation Evaluation

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Contribution (Conference Proceeding)


The performance of CFRP is influenced by the proper stacking of various layers of carbon fibres oriented at different angles and by the curing process. In these multi-layer structures, fibre misorientation (off-axis) and fibre waviness can happen during manufacturing, leading to reduced performance and structural failures during operation. High-frequency ECT has demonstrated its capability for detecting the orientation-related features, including fibre orientation and waviness, in previous work. However, the electromagnetic modelling of orientation-related features was not fully explored in the community, which hinders the optimisation of the ECT configuration for achieving high detectability and sensitivity. In this work, finite element modelling is used to determine the ECT response of a planar CFRP component containing multiple plies. The structure of CFRP is modelled by 2D waves as the function of orientation and its conductivity tensor. The virtual ECT test was then implemented in the modelling. Then, the tools of the chain are proposed, including Radon transform, and 2D FFT for orientation characterisation. The simulated and experimental data are validated through the chain's tools. The results demonstrate that the electromagnetic resistive characteristics of the CFRP structure can be modelled with the proposed approach compared with experimental data. The orientation inversion techniques Radon transform can estimate the orientations from the impedance data. The overall strategy has provided the methodology for modelling the heterogenous EM properties of composites.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (XXIV)
EditorsSandor Bilicz, Szabolcs Gyimothy, Gabor Vertesy
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic) 9781643683812
ISBN (Print)9781643683805
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2023
Event25th International Workshop on Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation, ENDE 2022 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 13 Jun 202215 Jun 2022

Publication series

NameStudies in Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics
ISSN (Print)1383-7281
ISSN (Electronic)1879-8322


Conference25th International Workshop on Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation, ENDE 2022
CityVirtual, Online

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 IOS Press. All rights reserved.


  • Carbon fibre reinforced polymer
  • Fibre orientation
  • Finite Element Modelling
  • High-frequency eddy current
  • Radon transform


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