Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid

A. Geyer, J. C. Phillips, M. Mier-Torrecilla, S. R. Idelsohn, E. Oñate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10−4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-271
Number of pages11
JournalExperiments in Fluids
Issue number1
Early online date25 Oct 2011
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Oct 2011


  • flow regime
  • interfacial tension
  • momentum flux
  • Richardson number
  • viscosity ratio

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