Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a key mediator of inflammation in host defence against infection and in autoimmune disease. Its production is controlled post-transcriptionally by multiple RNA-binding proteins that interact with the TNF-alpha AU-rich element and regulate its expression; one of these is Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1). The anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), which is involved in the homeostatic regulation of TNF-alpha, causes post-transcriptional suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-alpha production. We report here that this depends on FXR1. Using RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM phi) stimulated with LPS and TGF-beta 1, we show that TGF-beta 1 inhibits TNF-alpha protein secretion, whereas TNF-alpha mRNA expression remains unchanged. This response is recapitulated by the 3'-UTR of TNF-alpha, which is known to bind FXR1. TGF-beta 1 induces FXR1 with a pattern of expression distinct from that of tristetraprolin, T-cell intracellular antigen 1, or human antigen R. When FXR1 is knocked down, TGF-beta 1 is no longer able to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein production, and overexpression of FXR1 suppresses LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein production. Targeting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway of LPS-treated cells with small molecule inhibitors can induce FXR1 protein and mRNA expression. In summary, TGF-beta 1 opposes LPS-induced stabilization of TNF-alpha mRNA and reduces the amount of TNF-alpha protein, through induction of expression of the mRNA-binding protein FXR1.
|Translated title of the contribution||Fragile X-related protein FXR1 controls post-transcriptional suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production by transforming growth factor-beta1|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2010|