Frequency response services designed for energy storage

D. M. Greenwood*, K. Y. Lim, C. Patsios, P. F. Lyons, Y. S. Lim, P. C. Taylor

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

191 Citations (Scopus)


Energy Storage Systems (ESS) are expected to play a significant role in regulating the frequency of future electric power systems. Increased penetration of renewable generation, and reduction in the inertia provided by large synchronous generators, are likely to increase the severity and regularity of frequency events in synchronous AC power systems. By supplying or absorbing power in response to deviations from the nominal frequency and imbalances between supply and demand, the rapid response of ESS will provide a form of stability which cannot be matched by conventional network assets. However, the increased complexity of ESS operational requirements and design specifications introduces challenges when it comes to the realisation of their full potential through existing frequency response service markets: new service markets will need to be designed to take advantage of the capabilities of ESS. This paper provides new methods to analyse and assessing the performance of ESS within existing service frameworks, using real-time network simulation and power hardware in the loop. These methods can be used to introduce improvements in existing services and potentially create new ones. Novel statistical techniques have been devised to quantify the design and operational requirements of ESS providing frequency regulation services. These new techniques are demonstrated via an illustrative service design and high-resolution frequency data from the Great Britain transmission system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-127
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work in this paper was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under grant number EP/K002252/1, and the Newton Fund under grant number 172733856. The authors would also like to thank Martin Feeney, Smart Grid Lab Supervisor, for his help with the experimental work described in this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Authors

Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Energy storage
  • Frequency response
  • Hardware-in-the-loop
  • Power systems
  • Real-time simulation


Dive into the research topics of 'Frequency response services designed for energy storage'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this