From alternative conceptions of honesty to alternative facts in communications by U.S. politicians

Jana Lasser, Segun Taofeek Aroyehun, Fabio Carrella, Almog Simchon, David Garcia, Stephan Lewandowsky*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The spread of online misinformation on social media is increasingly perceived as a problem for societal cohesion and democracy. The role of political leaders in this process has attracted less research attention, even though politicians who ‘speak their mind’ are perceived by segments of the public as authentic and honest even if their statements are unsupported by evidence. By analysing communications by members of the US Congress on Twitter between 2011 and 2022, we show that politicians’ conception of honesty has undergone a distinct shift, with authentic belief speaking that may be decoupled from evidence becoming more prominent and more differentiated from explicitly evidence-based fact speaking. We show that for Republicans—but not Democrats—an increase in belief speaking of 10% is associated with a decrease of 12.8 points of quality (NewsGuard scoring system) in the sources shared in a tweet. In contrast, an increase in fact-speaking language is associated with an increase in quality of sources for both parties. Our study is observational and cannot support causal inferences. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the current dissemination of misinformation in political discourse is linked to an alternative understanding of truth and honesty that emphasizes invocation of subjective belief at the expense of reliance on evidence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2140-2151
Number of pages12
JournalNature Human Behaviour
Issue number12
Early online date25 Sept 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Sept 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This report was partly funded by the Templeton Foundation through a grant awarded to Wake Forest University for the Honesty Project. S.L. was also supported by funding from the Humboldt Foundation in Germany, and S.L. and D.G. are beneficiaries of the ERC Advanced Grant PRODEMINFO (101020961). J.L. was supported by the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant number 101026507. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the article. We acknowledge Travis Coan for helpful feedback on the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

Structured keywords

  • TeDCog
  • Cognitive Science
  • Self and Society (Psychological Science)


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