Frugality, grassroots and inclusiveness: New challenges for mainstream innovation theories

Mario Pansera*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Intriguing and provocative concepts such as frugal innovation, Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) innovation, empathetic innovation and inclusive innovation are attracting the attention of many scholars in emerging countries as well as raising concern in Western countries. These notions are often known as ‘below-the-radar innovations’. There are several reasons to believe that technical and social changes originating in the developing world will become major drivers of innovation in the near future. For those reasons, it is crucial to understand how innovation is planned, designed and deployed outside the comfortable territory of the Western paradigm. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the alternative innovation paradigms that are emerging in the developing world. This paper also aims to analyse the determinants and drivers that are at the base of below-the-radar innovation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-478
Number of pages10
JournalAfrican Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Below the radar innovation
  • Bottom of the pyramid
  • Frugal innovation
  • Grassroots innovation


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