Fruit intake associated with urinary estrogen metabolites in healthy premenopausal women

Kerryn W Reding, Charlotte Atkinson, Kim C Westerlind, Frank Stanczyk, Erin J Aiello Bowles, Mellissa Yong, Katherine M Newton, Johanna W Lampe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Urinary concentrations of 2:16-hydroxyestrone (2:16-OHE1) approximate concentrations of 2-OHE1and 16α -OHE1in breast tissue. As estrogens are purported to be involved in breast cancer development, the 2:16-OHE1ratio can provide an indication of estrogen metabolite exposure in the breast. With prior studies observing associations between urinary estrogen metabolites and dietary intake of fruits, vegetables, and fiber ascertained from food questionnaires, we examined associations between dietary factors ascertained through 3-day food records and urinary 2:16-OHE1in 191 pre-menopausal healthy women. Fruit consumption was positively associated with 2:16-OHE1after adjustment for total energy, ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking history, and serum estradiol (p= 0.003). Fruit consumption was positively associated with 2- OHE1concentrations (p=0.006), but was not associated with 16α-OHE1(p=0.92). The Musaceae botanical grouping (comprised primarily of bananas) was positively associated with the 2:16-OHE1ratio, and Rosaceae (comprised of citrus fruits) and Musaceae botanical groupings were positively associated with 2-OHE1(but not 16α-OHE1) concentrations, after adjustment for confounders. Our data suggest that dietary fruit intake is associated with urinary 2- OHE1and the 2:16-OHE1ratio and that breast tissue exposure to estrogen metabolites may thus be influenced by diet.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOpen Journal of Preventive Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 23 Feb 2012


  • Journal Article


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