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This paper is concerned with the line capacity of high-speed rail operations. Inspired by highway traffic modelling, we derive analytical ‘fundamental diagrams’ that relate trains’ average speeds, spacings (macroscopically: density), and timetabled frequency (macroscopically: flow rate). Note that the distinction with classical car-following models (CFMs) arises from the block-based signalling rules which provide the only means by which neighbouring trains interact. We then develop simplified simulations in which a large number of identical trains repeatedly circle around a large closed track circuit. Three distinct regimes are observed: (i) trains self-organise to have sufficient space between them to run constantly at their goal speed; (ii) stop-and-go waves, with the circuit divided into regions of maximum speed running, and queues; (iii) jitter, i.e., repeated patterns of acceleration and deceleration when the goal speed is set too high. These regimes are explained in terms of the fundamental diagrams. The analysis provides useful rules-of-thumb for the design of robust mainline operations. Finally, we discuss how the analysis may be adapted to model potential capacity improvements that would result from the roll-out of connected and/or autonomous trains with peer-to-peer communication that is independent of block-based signalling rules.
|Publication status||In preparation - 16 Jun 2022|
- Line Capacity
- Fundamental Diagram
- Block-Based Signalling
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T-B PHASE: Prosperity Partnership with Thales
Richards, A. G., Wilson, R. E., Johnson, A., Bullock, S., Lawry, J., Noyes, J. M., Hauert, S., Bode, N. W. F., Pitonakova, L., Kent, T., Crosscombe, M., Zanatto, D., Alkan, B., Drury, K. L., Hogg, E., Bonnell, W. D., Bennett, C., Clarke, C. E. M., Potts, M. W., Sartor, P. N., Harvey, D., Rayneau-Kirkhope, B., Galvin, K., Lam, J., Barden, E., Chattington, M., Radanovic, M., Morey, E. J., Ball, M., Hunt, E. R., Richards, A. G., Radanovic, M., Morey, E. J., Steane, V., Reed Edworthy, J. & Hart, S. G.
1/10/17 → 31/03/23