Gelatin freeze casting of biomimetic titanium alloy with anisotropic and gradient pore structure

Lei Zhang, Ronan Le Coz-Botrel, Charlotte Beddoes, Terje Sjöström, Bo Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
429 Downloads (Pure)


Titanium is a material commonly used for dental and orthopaedic implants. However, due to large differences in properties between the titanium metal and the natural bone, stress shielding has been observed in the surrounding area, resulting in bone atrophy, and thus has raised concerns of the use of this material. Ideally implant materials should possess similar properties to the surrounding tissues in order to distribute the load as the joint would naturally, while also possessing a similar porous structure to the bone to enable interaction with the surrounding material. In this paper we report the formation of aligned porous titanium alloy scaffolds with the use of unidirectional freeze casting with a temperature gradient. The resulting scaffolds had a dense bottom part with sufficient strength for loading, while the top part remaining porous in order to allow bone growth in the scaffold and fully integrating with the surrounding tissue. The anisotropic nature of the pores within the titanium alloy samples were observed via micro computed tomography, where a gradient structure similar to bone was observed. The compressive strength of the fabricated scaffolds was found to be up to 427 MPa when measured with the pores aligned with the applied load, depending on the pore density. This is within the range of cortical bone.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015014
Number of pages7
JournalBiomedical Materials (Bristol)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2017


  • bone scaffolds
  • freeze casting
  • mechanical properties


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