Alcohol problem use during adolescence has been linked to a variety of adverse consequences, including cigarette and illicit drug use, delinquency, adverse effects on pubertal brain development and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In addition, heavy alcohol-drinking adolescents are at increased risk of comorbid psychopathology, including internalizing symptomatology (especially depression and anxiety). A range of genetic and non-genetic factors have been implicated in both alcohol problem use as well as internalizing symptomatology. However, to what extent shared risk factors contribute to their comorbidity in adolescence is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review on Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science to identify epidemiological and molecular genetic studies published between November 1997 and November 2007 that examined risk factors that may be shared in common between alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence. Externalizing disorders, family alcohol problems and stress, as well as the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) S-allele, the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) low-activity alleles and the dopamine D2 receptor (DDR2) Taq A1 allele have been associated most frequently with both traits. An increasing number of papers are focusing upon the role of gene-gene (epistasis) and gene-environment interactions in the development of comorbid alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology. Further research in adolescents is warranted; the increasing availability of large longitudinal genetically informative studies will provide the evidence base from which effective prevention and intervention strategies for comorbid alcohol problems and internalizing symptomatology can be developed.
|Translated title of the contribution||Genetic and non-genetic influences on the development of co-occurring alcohol problem use and internalizing symptomatology in adolescence: a review|
|Pages (from-to)||1100 - 1121|
|Number of pages||22|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 2009|