Geochemistry of ilmenites in heavy mineral sand deposits from Southwestern India: A source to beach case study

Felicity Lloyd*, Roger McLimans, Stuart Kearns

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Contribution (Conference Proceeding)

3 Citations (Scopus)


The metamorphic terrane of southwestern India is a geological environment containing ilmenite source-rocks, transport drainage systems, and resultant beach sand deposits that contain altered ilmenites greater than 60wt% TiO 2. As such, this environment provides a geological laboratory, from source to deposit, for the investigation of ilmenite origin, alteration, and geochemical character. Ilmenite samples from potential source rocks, river sands, and beach sands all show degrees of alteration and a variety of alteration textures (iron leaching) producing leucoxene (here defined as >70 <90wt% TiO2) and progressing to rutile (here defined as >90wt% TiO 2). Distinct alteration textures are specific to different source rocks and are used together with trace element geochemistry as provenance criteria. Ilmenites are classified on the basis of their trace element content. In India, the ilmenites are classified principally according to the Mg, Nb, and Mn content and this signature defines potential source rocks, even where the ilmenite is altered to a TiO2 content of 70wt%. The trace element data may fingerprint source rocks whose ilmenite is more prone to iron leaching and that criterion has application in exploration for higher-grade ilmenites.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2005 Heavy Minerals Conference Proceedings, HMC 2005
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2005
Event2005 Heavy Minerals Conference, HMC 2005 - Jacksonville, FL, United States
Duration: 16 Oct 200519 Oct 2005


Conference2005 Heavy Minerals Conference, HMC 2005
CountryUnited States
CityJacksonville, FL

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