Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America and Oceania

Susana S. Santos, Iris Eekhout, Ellis Voerman, Romy Gaillard, Henrique Barros, Marie-Aline Charles, Leda Chatzi, Cécile Chevrier, George Chrousos, Eva Corpeleijn, Nathalie Costet, Sarah R Crozier, Myriam Doyon, Merete Eggesbø, Maria Fantini, Sara Farchi, Francesco Forastiere, Luigi Gagliardi, Vagelis Georgiu, Keith M GodfreyDavide Gori, Veit Grote, Wojciech Hanke, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Barbara Heude, Marie-France Hivert, Daniel Hryhorczuk, Rae-Chi Huang, Hazel M Inskip, Todd Jusko, Anne Karvonen, Berthold Koletzko, Leanne Kupers, Hanna Lagström, Debbie Lawlor, Irina Lehmann, Maria Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Per Magnus, Renata Majewska, Johanna Mäkelä, Yannis Manios, Sheila McDonald, Monique Mommers, Camilla S Morgen, George Moschonis, Ľubica Murínová, John P Newnham, Ellen A Nohr, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Emily Oken, Adriëtte Oostvogels, Agnieszka Pac, Eleni Papageorgiou, Juha Pekkanen, Costanza Pizzi, Kinga Polanska, Daniela Porta, Lorenzo Richiardi, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Nel Roeleveld, Loreto Santa-Marina, Ana Santos, Henriette Smit, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, Marie Standl, Maggie Stanislawski, Camilla Stoltenberg, Elisabeth Thiering, Carel Thijs, Maties Torrent, Suzanne Tough, Tomas Trnovec, Marleen M.H.J. van Gelder, Lenie Rossem, Andrea von Berg, Martine Vrijheid, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Oleksandr Zvinchuk, Stef van Buuren, Vincent W V Jaddoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Background: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2 and 3 obese women and compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.

Methods: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America and Oceania. Of these women, 9,065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3,597 (1.6%), and 1,095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2 and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2 and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape.

Results: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grade 1, 2 and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.

Conclusions: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number201
Number of pages15
JournalBMC Medicine
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2018

Keywords

  • weight gain
  • pregnancy
  • charts
  • references

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