element approach. Three different fidelity of optimization cases are performed to investigate the multimodality of various aspects of the full problem, with four independent runs of each case being performed. When considering chord optimization, the optimizer converges to two independently identifiable minima with very similar performance. When adding dihedral and sweep variation, further multimodality is introduced, though this multimodality is reasonably well defined, with minima including forward and rearward sweep, and an upward and downward winglet. Introducing thickness variables leads to a highly multimodal problem due to the coupling between the chord and thickness variables. The
theoretical minimum drag for this case is 24.7 counts, which a number of the runs get close to achieving.
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Susan L Pywell (Manager), Simon A Burbidge (Other), Polly E Eccleston (Other) & Simon H Atack (Other)