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Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (MRs and GRs) constitute a functionally important dual receptor system detecting and transmitting circulating corticosteroid signals. High expression of MRs and GRs occurs in the same cells in the limbic system, the primary site of glucocorticoid action on cognition, behavior, and mood; however, modes of interaction between the receptors are poorly characterized. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation with nucleotide resolution using exonuclease digestion, unique barcode, and single ligation (ChIP-nexus) for high-resolution genome-wide characterization of MR and GR DNA binding profiles in neuroblastoma cells and demonstrate recruitment to highly similar DNA binding sites. Expressed MR or GR showed differential regulation of endogenous gene targets, including Syt2 and Ddc, whereas coexpression produced augmented transcriptional responses even when MRs were unable to bind DNA (MR-XDBD). ChIP confirmed that MR-XDBD could be tethered to chromatin by GR. Our data demonstrate that MR can interact at individual genomic DNA sites in multiple modes and suggest a role for MR in increasing the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.
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Glucocorticoid receptor tethered mineralocorticoid receptors increase glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional responses