Ground movements due to deep excavations in Shanghai: Design charts

Malcolm Bolton, Sze-Yue Lam, Paul J Vardanega, Charles Ng, Xianfeng Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
761 Downloads (Pure)


Recent research has clarified the sequence of ground deformation mechanisms that manifest themselves when excavations are made in soft ground. Furthermore, a new framework to describe the deformability of clays in the working stress range has been devised using a large database of previously published soil tests. This paper aims to capitalize on these advances, by analyzing an expanded database of ground movements associated with braced excavations in Shanghai. It is shown that conventional design charts fail to take account either of the characteristics of soil deformability or the relevant deformation mechanisms, and therefore introduce significant scatter. A new method of presentation is found which provides a set of design charts that clarify the influence of soil deformability, wall stiffness, and the geometry of the excavation in relation to the depth of soft ground.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-236
Number of pages36
JournalFrontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering
Issue number3
Early online date13 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Shanghai
  • excavations
  • mobilizable strength design
  • dimensionless groups
  • design charts


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