Growing Atmospheric Emissions of Sulfuryl Fluoride

A. Gressent*, M. Rigby, A. L. Ganesan, R. G. Prinn, A. J. Manning, J. Mühle, P. K. Salameh, P. B. Krummel, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, B. Mitrevski, R. F. Weiss, C. M. Harth, R. H. Wang, S. O'Doherty, D. Young, S. Park, S. Li, B. Yao, S. ReimannM. K. Vollmer, M. Maione, J. Arduini, C. R. Lunder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

Abstract

The potent greenhouse gas sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is increasingly used as a fumigant, replacing methyl bromide, whose structural and soil fumigation uses have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. We use measurements on archived air samples and in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and a box model of the global atmosphere to show a global increase of SO2F2 mole fraction from 0.3 ± 0.02 to 2.5 ± 0.08 ppt along with a global increase in emissions from 0.5 ± 0.4 Gg yr−1 to 2.9 ± 0.4 Gg yr−1 from 1978 to 2019. Based on a hybrid model incorporating bottom-up industry data and a top-down downscaling approach, we estimate the spatial distribution and trend in SO2F2 regional emissions between 2000 and 2019 and propose that the global emissions increase is driven by the growing use of SO2F2 in structural fumigation in North America and in postharvest treatment of grains and other agricultural products worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2020JD034327
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Volume126
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the station staff (AGAGE and others) for ensuring high quality instrument performance, providing state-of-the-art, and reliable data. Funding for this work, as well as operation of the AGAGE instruments at Mace Head, Trinidad Head, Cape Matatula, Ragged Point, and Cape Grim, were from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (grants NAG5-12669, NNX07AE89G, NNX11AF17G and NNX16AC98G to MIT and grants NNX07AE87G, NNX07AF09G, NNX11AF15G, and NNX11AF16G to SIO), the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS, UK) contract 1028/06/2015 in support of Mace Head and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, USA), contract RA-133-R15-CN-0008 to the University of Bristol in support of Ragged Point, Barbados, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO Australia), the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia), the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment (Australia). Support for the Jungfraujoch measurements is provided by the Swiss National Programs HALCLIM and CLIMGAS-CH (Swiss Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN) and by the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat (HFSJG). Support for Monte Cimone operation is provided by the National Research Council (CNR) of Italy and the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, through the Project of National Interest ?Nextdata?. Support for Shangdianzi measurements is provided by the China Meteorological Administration Operational Funding and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (41575114). Sunyoung Park (and the Gosan AGAGE station) is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2020R1A2C3003774). SO2F2 measurements at Zeppelin are supported by the Norwegian Environment Agency. Anita Ganesan was supported by a UK Natural Environment Research Council Fellowship (NE/L010992/1). The SIO group also thanks Dow AgroSciences and Douglas Products for their long-term support of SO2F2 measurements in the global atmosphere.

Funding Information:
The authors thank the station staff (AGAGE and others) for ensuring high quality instrument performance, providing state‐of‐the‐art, and reliable data. Funding for this work, as well as operation of the AGAGE instruments at Mace Head, Trinidad Head, Cape Matatula, Ragged Point, and Cape Grim, were from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (grants NAG5‐12669, NNX07AE89G, NNX11AF17G and NNX16AC98G to MIT and grants NNX07AE87G, NNX07AF09G, NNX11AF15G, and NNX11AF16G to SIO), the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS, UK) contract 1028/06/2015 in support of Mace Head and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, USA), contract RA‐133‐R15‐CN‐0008 to the University of Bristol in support of Ragged Point, Barbados, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO Australia), the Bureau of Meteorology (Australia), the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment (Australia). Support for the Jungfraujoch measurements is provided by the Swiss National Programs HALCLIM and CLIMGAS‐CH (Swiss Federal Office for the Environment, FOEN) and by the International Foundation High Altitude Research Stations Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat (HFSJG). Support for Monte Cimone operation is provided by the National Research Council (CNR) of Italy and the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, through the Project of National Interest Nextdata. Support for Shangdianzi measurements is provided by the China Meteorological Administration Operational Funding and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (41575114). Sunyoung Park (and the Gosan AGAGE station) is supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2020R1A2C3003774). SOF measurements at Zeppelin are supported by the Norwegian Environment Agency. Anita Ganesan was supported by a UK Natural Environment Research Council Fellowship (NE/L010992/1). The SIO group also thanks Dow AgroSciences and Douglas Products for their long‐term support of SOF measurements in the global atmosphere. “ ” 2 2 2 2

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Keywords

  • AGAGE
  • emissions
  • global atmosphere
  • SOF

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