SUMOylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) whereby members of the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) family of proteins are conjugated to lysine residues in target proteins. SUMOylation has been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, and much attention has been given to its role in neurodegenerative conditions. Due to its reported role in neuroprotection, pharmacological modulation of SUMOylation represents an attractive potential therapeutic strategy in a number of different brain disorders. However, very few compounds that target the SUMOylation pathway have been identified. Guanosine is an endogenous nucleoside with important neuromodulatory and neuroprotective effects. Experimental evidence has shown that guanosine can modulate different intracellular pathways, including PTMs. In the present study we examined whether guanosine alters global protein SUMOylation. Primary cortical neurons and astrocytes were treated with guanosine at 1, 10, 100, 300, or 500 μM at four time points, 1, 6, 24, or 48 h. We show that guanosine increases global SUMO2/3-ylation in neurons and astrocytes at 1 h at concentrations above 10 μM. The molecular mechanisms involved in this effect were evaluated in neurons. The guanosine-induced increase in global SUMO2/3-ylation was still observed in the presence of dipyridamole, which prevents guanosine internalization, demonstrating an extracellular guanosine-induced effect. Furthermore, the A1 adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX abolished the guanosine-induced increase in SUMO2/3-ylation. The A2A adenosine receptor antagonist ZM241385 increased SUMOylation per se, but did not alter guanosine-induced SUMOylation, suggesting that guanosine may modulate SUMO2/3-ylation through an A1-A2A receptor interaction. Taken together, this is the first report to show guanosine as a SUMO2/3-ylation enhancer in astrocytes and neurons.
- Post-translational modification
- Purinergic system