Guaranteed violation of a Bell inequality without aligned reference frames or calibrated devices

Peter Shadbolt, Tamas Vertesi, Yeong-Cherng Liang, Cyril Branciard, Nicolas Brunner*, Jeremy L. O'Brien

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Bell tests - the experimental demonstration of a Bell inequality violation - are central to understanding the foundations of quantum mechanics, and are a powerful diagnostic tool for the development of quantum technologies. To date, Bell tests have relied on careful calibration of measurement devices and alignment of a shared reference frame between two parties - both technically demanding tasks. We show that neither of these operations are necessary, violating Bell inequalities (i) with certainty using unaligned, but calibrated, measurement devices, and (ii) with near-certainty using uncalibrated and unaligned devices. We demonstrate generic quantum nonlocality with randomly chosen measurements on a singlet state of two photons, implemented using a reconfigurable integrated optical waveguide circuit. The observed results demonstrate the robustness of our schemes to imperfections and statistical noise. This approach is likely to have important applications both in fundamental science and quantum technologies, including device-independent quantum key distribution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number470
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2012


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