Guidelines for performing Mendelian randomization investigations: update for summer 2023

Stephen Burgess, George Davey Smith, Neil M Davies, Frank Dudbridge, Dipender Gill, M Maria Glymour, Fernando P Hartwig, Zoltán Kutalik, Michael V Holmes, Cosetta Minelli, Jean V Morrison, Wei Pan, Caroline L Relton, Evropi Theodoratou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

578 Citations (Scopus)
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This paper provides guidelines for performing Mendelian randomization investigations. It is aimed at practitioners seeking to undertake analyses and write up their findings, and at journal editors and reviewers seeking to assess Mendelian randomization manuscripts. The guidelines are divided into ten sections: motivation and scope, data sources, choice of genetic variants, variant harmonization, primary analysis, supplementary and sensitivity analyses (one section on robust statistical methods and one on other approaches), extensions and additional analyses, data presentation, and interpretation. These guidelines will be updated based on feedback from the community and advances in the field. Updates will be made periodically as needed, and at least every 24 months.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages34
JournalWellcome Open Research
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright: © 2023 Burgess S et al.

Structured keywords

  • Bristol Population Health Science Institute


  • Mendelian randomization
  • guidelines
  • genetic epidemiology
  • causal inference


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