Harmonization of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Islet Antigen-2 Autoantibody Assays for National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Consortia

E Bonifacio, L Yu, AJK Williams, GS Eisenbarth, PJ Bingley, SM Marcovina, K Adler, AG Ziegler, PW Mueller, DA Schatz, JP Krischer, MW Steffes, B Akolkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

179 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background/Rationale: Autoantibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) are markers for diagnosis, screening, and measuring outcomes in National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) consortia studies. A harmonization program was established to increase comparability of results within and among these studies. Methods: Large volumes of six working calibrators were prepared from pooled sera with GADA 4.8-493 World Health Organization (WHO) units/ml and IA-2A 2-235 WHO units/ml. Harmonized assay protocols for IA-2A and GADA using (35)S-methionine-labelled in vitro transcribed and translated antigens were developed based on methods in use in three NIDDK laboratories. Antibody thresholds were defined using sera from patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. To evaluate the impact of the harmonized assay protocol on concordance of IA-2A and GADA results, two laboratories retested stored TEDDY study sera using the harmonized assays. Results: The harmonized assays gave comparable but not identical results in the three laboratories. For IA-2A, using a common threshold of 5 DK units/ml, 549 of 550 control and patient samples were concordantly scored as positive or negative, specificity was greater than 99% with sensitivity 64% in all laboratories. For GADA, using thresholds equivalent to the 97th percentile of 974 control samples in each laboratory, 1051 (97.9%) of 1074 samples were concordant. On the retested TEDDY samples, discordance decreased from 4 to 1.8% for IA-2A (n = 604 samples; P = 0.02) and from 15.4 to 2.7% for GADA (n = 515 samples; P <0.0001). Conclusion: Harmonization of GADA and IA-2A is feasible using large volume working calibrators and common protocols and is an effective approach to ensure consistency in autoantibody measurements.
Translated title of the contributionHarmonization of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase and Islet Antigen-2 Autoantibody Assays for National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Consortia
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3360 - 3367
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume95(7)
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010

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