Harnessing multi-photon absorption to produce three-dimensional magnetic structures at the nanoscale

Matthew Hunt, Mike Taverne, Joseph Askey, Andrew May, Arjen Van Den Berg, Ying Lung Daniel Ho, John Rarity, Sam Ladak*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
96 Downloads (Pure)


Three-dimensional nanostructured magnetic materials have recently been the topic of intense interest since they provide access to a host of new physical phenomena. Examples include new spin textures that exhibit topological protection, magnetochiral eects and novel ultrafast magnetic phenomena such as the spin-Cherenkov eect. Two-photon lithography is a powerful methodology that is capable of realising 3D polymer nanostructures on the scale of 100 nm. Combining this with postprocessing and deposition methodologies allows 3D magnetic nanostructures of arbitrary geometry to be produced. In this article, the physics of two-photon lithography is first detailed, before reviewing the studies to date that have exploited this fabrication route. The article then moves on to consider how non-linear optical techniques and post-processing solutions can be used to realise structures with a feature size below 100 nm, before comparing two-photon lithography with other direct write methodologies and providing a discussion on future developments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number761
Number of pages19
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2020

Structured keywords

  • Bristol Quantum Information Institute
  • QETLabs
  • Photonics and Quantum


  • Magnetism
  • Nanoscale
  • Nanostructures
  • Three-dimensional
  • Two-photon lithography


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