Skip to content

Harnessing multi-photon absorption to produce three-dimensional magnetic structures at the nanoscale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)

Original languageEnglish
Article number761
Number of pages19
Issue number3
DateAccepted/In press - 5 Feb 2020
DatePublished (current) - 7 Feb 2020


Three-dimensional nanostructured magnetic materials have recently been the topic of intense interest since they provide access to a host of new physical phenomena. Examples include new spin textures that exhibit topological protection, magnetochiral eects and novel ultrafast magnetic phenomena such as the spin-Cherenkov eect. Two-photon lithography is a powerful methodology that is capable of realising 3D polymer nanostructures on the scale of 100 nm. Combining this with postprocessing and deposition methodologies allows 3D magnetic nanostructures of arbitrary geometry to be produced. In this article, the physics of two-photon lithography is first detailed, before reviewing the studies to date that have exploited this fabrication route. The article then moves on to consider how non-linear optical techniques and post-processing solutions can be used to realise structures with a feature size below 100 nm, before comparing two-photon lithography with other direct write methodologies and providing a discussion on future developments.

    Research areas

  • Magnetism, Nanoscale, Nanostructures, Three-dimensional, Two-photon lithography

Download statistics

No data available



  • Full-text PDF (final published version)

    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via MDPI at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Final published version, 4.52 MB, PDF document

    Licence: CC BY


View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups