Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption: findings from a Mendelian randomisation analysis

Johan H Bjorngaard, Ask Nordestgaard, Amy Taylor, Jorien Treur, Maiken Elvestad Gabrielsen, Marcus Munafo, Børge G. Nordestgaard, Bjørn Olav Asvold, Pal Richard Romundstad, George Davey Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)
421 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background

There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake.

Methods

We performed Mendelian randomisation analyses in the UK Biobank (N=114,029), the Norwegian HUNT study (N=56,664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CPGS) (N=78,650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CPGS. Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies.

Results

Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI:0.03,0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per additional cigarette smoked per day (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI:-0.002,0.07). There was strong evidence that each additional copy of the minor allele of rs16969968 (which increases daily cigarette consumption) in current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.16 cups per day, 95% CI:0.12,0.21), but only weak evidence for an association with tea consumption (0.04 cups per day, 95% CI:-0.01,0.09). There was no clear evidence that rs16969968 was associated with coffee or tea consumption in never or former smokers or that the coffee-related variants were associated with cigarette consumption.

Conclusion

Higher cigarette consumption causally increases coffee intake. This is consistent with faster metabolism of caffeine by smokers, but could also reflect a behavioural effect of smoking on coffee drinking.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberdyx147
Pages (from-to)1958-1967
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Volume46
Issue number6
Early online date14 Aug 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Tobacco and Alcohol

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