The interferon inducible membrane protein tetherin (Bst-2/CD317) is an antiviral factor that inhibits enveloped virus release by cross-linking newly formed virus particles to the producing cell. The majority of viruses that are sensitive to tetherin restriction appear to be those that acquire their envelope at the plasma membrane, although many viruses, including herpesviruses, envelope at intracellular membranes and the effect of tetherin on such viruses has been less well studied. We have investigated the tetherin sensitivity and possible countermeasures of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). We find that over-expression of tetherin inhibits HSV-1 release and that HSV-1 efficiently depletes tetherin from infected cells. We further show that the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein is important for depletion of tetherin mRNA and protein, and that removal of tetherin compensates for defects in replication and release of a vhs-null virus. Vhs is known to be important for HSV-1 to evade the innate immune response in vivo. Taken together, our data suggests that tetherin has antiviral activity towards HSV-1 and the removal of tetherin by vhs is important for the efficient replication and dissemination of HSV-1.
|Journal||Journal of Virology|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2013|
- virion host shutoff
- virus release