High-Speed 3D Imaging of Multiphase Systems: Applying SCAPE Microscopy to Analog Experiments in Volcanology and Earth Sciences

J. Oppenheimer, K. Patel, A. Lindoo, E. M.C. Hillman, E. Lev*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

Abstract

Multiphase suspensions are complex systems where microscopic interactions between suspended bubbles, particles, and liquids can significantly alter bulk behavior. Observing the internal mechanics of such suspensions can help constrain the dynamics of natural multiphase flows. To capture these internal processes at high speed and in three dimensions, we propose the use of Swept Confocally Aligned Planar Excitation (SCAPE) microscopy in analog experiments. This imaging technique, developed for neuroscience and biology, uses a sweeping light sheet to illuminate and image fluorophores within a sample. We performed experiments using water and various oils as the liquid phases, glass or PMMA particles for solids, and air or CO2 for gas, which we imaged at rates >50 volumes per second, over a volume size of ∼1 × 1 × 0.4 mm. We focused on three case studies: (1) bubble nucleation, growth, and rise in sparkling water, where we found that bubble detachment from angular PMMA particles left residual bubbles that also grew and detached, generating more bubbles compared to smooth particles; (2) flow of immiscible liquids (water droplets suspended in canola oil) in a porous matrix of PMMA beads, which highlighted the importance of pore and throat sizes on droplet velocities; and (3) injection of air bubbles into concentrated suspensions of glass beads or crushed PMMA particles in a refractive-index-matched liquid, which revealed particle motion and strong alterations of the bubble shape. We conclude that SCAPE microscopy is a powerful tool to study the dynamics of multiphase systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2020GC009410
JournalGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The research presented here was funded by a Research Initiatives in Science and Engineering (RISE) grant awarded by Columbia University to E. Lev, E. M. C. Hillman, and J. Oppenheimer. Funding was also provided by National Institutes of Health BRAIN initiative (Grant Nos. 5U01NS09429, UF1NS108213 to E. M. C. Hillman) and the National Science Foundation CAREER (Grant No. CBET-0954796 to E. M. C. Hillman and Grant No. EAR-1654588 to E. Lev), GRFP (Grant No. DGE-1644869 to K. Patel), and IGERT (Grant No. 0801530 to V.V.) programs. Authors K. Patel and E. M. C. Hillman disclose a financial conflict of interest relating to licensing of SCAPE microscopy to Leica Microsystems for commercial development. We would like to acknowledge the students who helped with preliminary large-scale 2D experiments that guided our small-scale experiments presented in Case 2: Sara Sobolewska, (funded by NSF-REU Grant OCE17-57602 to Dallas Abbott), Aurora Barone (funded by the work-study program at Columbia University), and Victor Stevens and Matthieu Andre (funded by Lyc?e Fran?ais De New York and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory High School Program). Furthermore, we would like to gratefully acknowledge the help provided by LDEO engineers Ryan Harris and Theodore A. Koczynski for their help designing and building the experimental setup. We thank Venkatakaushik Voleti and Citlali Perez-Campos for assistance with SCAPE system construction and maintenance, as well as Christian Huber and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that truly helped improve this manuscript.

Funding Information:
The research presented here was funded by a Research Initiatives in Science and Engineering (RISE) grant awarded by Columbia University to E. Lev, E. M. C. Hillman, and J. Oppenheimer. Funding was also provided by National Institutes of Health BRAIN initiative (Grant Nos. 5U01NS09429, UF1NS108213 to E. M. C. Hillman) and the National Science Foundation CAREER (Grant No. CBET‐0954796 to E. M. C. Hillman and Grant No. EAR‐1654588 to E. Lev), GRFP (Grant No. DGE‐1644869 to K. Patel), and IGERT (Grant No. 0801530 to V.V.) programs. Authors K. Patel and E. M. C. Hillman disclose a financial conflict of interest relating to licensing of SCAPE microscopy to Leica Microsystems for commercial development. We would like to acknowledge the students who helped with preliminary large‐scale 2D experiments that guided our small‐scale experiments presented in Case 2: Sara Sobolewska, (funded by NSF‐REU Grant OCE17‐57602 to Dallas Abbott), Aurora Barone (funded by the work‐study program at Columbia University), and Victor Stevens and Matthieu Andre (funded by Lycée Français De New York and the Lamont‐Doherty Earth Observatory High School Program). Furthermore, we would like to gratefully acknowledge the help provided by LDEO engineers Ryan Harris and Theodore A. Koczynski for their help designing and building the experimental setup. We thank Venkatakaushik Voleti and Citlali Perez‐Campos for assistance with SCAPE system construction and maintenance, as well as Christian Huber and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments that truly helped improve this manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • analog experiments
  • magma
  • microscopy
  • multiphase flows

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