High-temperature lithium isotope fractionation: Insights from lithium isotope diffusion in magmatic systems

Ian J. Parkinson*, Samantha J. Hammond, Rachael H. James, Nick W. Rogers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

110 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ion-microprobe analyses of the Li concentration and Li isotopic composition of zoned clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts from within primitive arc lavas from the New Georgia Group in the Solomon Islands reveal that both Li and δ 7Li vary widely from rim to core. The Li content of the rims is between 2 and 8 times that of the cores whereas Li isotope profiles are characterised by a zone with low δ 7Li (as low as - 20‰) and cores with δ 7Li values of between - 4 and + 8‰; these over-print macroscopic major element zoning. With time, the low δ 7Li zone broadens and migrates towards the centre of the crystal and the Li concentration gradient is reduced. These data are consistent with preferential diffusion of 6Li into the grain from a Li-enriched rim with 6Li diffusing ∼ 3% faster than 7Li. The profiles of δ 7Li and Li concentration can be reproduced by numerical modelling which confirms that the size of the δ 7Li trough is a function of the Li concentration gradient and the fractional difference in the diffusion rates of 6Li and 7Li. Both open and closed system models predict that a zone with low δ 7Li will migrate through the mineral grain with time, eventually relaxing back to a flat profile. Modelling of Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine suggests that the crystals have a residence time of 13-150 days, which is in accordance with the observed Li isotope profiles. This allows us to calibrate the rate of Li diffusion, which is 4-8 times slower in olivine and 20-30 times faster in clinopyroxene than Fe-Mg diffusion in olivine. The high speed of Li diffusion means that the δ 7Li values of minerals that interact with Li-rich melts can rapidly decrease. Therefore, porphyritic lavas are unlikely to be suitable for Li isotope studies of mantle processes and it may also explain why olivines generally have higher δ 7Li than co-existing pyroxenes in some mantle samples. Modification of Li isotope ratios, by interaction with the host lava, may occur in mantle xenoliths during transport to the Earth's surface in only a few days. Conversely, melts ascending through the mantle will rapidly exchange Li and this may erase the pristine δ 7Li information that the melt carries. This may explain why many subduction zone lavas do not have an obvious slab signature. This study demonstrates that Li diffusion can overprint primary mineral compositions on very short timescales. This means that careful investigation of coexisting minerals is required, but it may also provide valuable information about the timescales of short duration events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)609-621
Number of pages13
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume257
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2007

Keywords

  • diffusion
  • isotope fractionation
  • Li isotopes
  • magmatism
  • subduction zone

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