BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism, a potential complication of total joint replacement, is associated with preventable mortality and morbidity and is likely to be influenced by host-related factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, medical and surgical histories, as well as circulating biomarkers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the associations between host-related factors and venous thromboembolism risk following total hip and knee replacements.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to March 2018 for longitudinal studies reporting these associations. Summary measures of association were relative risks (95% confidence intervals).
RESULTS: We identified 89 studies with data on 14,763,963 joint replacements and 150,086 venous thromboembolism events. Comparing males to females, age ≥70 to <70 years, and blacks to whites, relative risks for venous thromboembolism were 0.83 (0.75-0.91), 1.24 (1.03-1.50), and 1.26 (1.20-1.31) respectively. Comparing body mass indices ≥25 vs. <25; ≥30 vs. <30; and ≥50 vs. <50 kg/m2, relative risks were 1.40 (1.24-1.57); 1.65 (1.23-2.22); and 1.72 (1.10-2.67) respectively. Histories of venous thromboembolism; cardiovascular disease; congestive heart failure; cardiac arrhythmia; chronic pulmonary disease; renal disease; neurological disease; fluid & electrolyte imbalance; bariatric surgery; and comorbidity indices were associated with increased venous thromboembolism risk. Comparing a total knee with a hip replacement, the relative risk for venous thromboembolism was 1.69 (1.32-2.15).
CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced venous thromboembolism prophylaxis should be considered in those with nonmodifiable risk factors such as older black female knee replacement patients. Modifiable risk factors such as high body mass index and fluid & electrolyte imbalance should be addressed prior to elective surgery.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018: CRD42018089625.
- Centre for Surgical Research