Housing and health: New evidence using biomarker data

Amy Clair*, Amanda Hughes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
236 Downloads (Pure)


The link between housing and health is well established and long-standing, however much of the evidence relies on self-reported health measures. While these are useful, the availability of biomarker data allows us to add to this evidence using objective indicators of health.

In this paper, we use C-reactive protein (CRP), a biomarker associated with infection and stress, alongside information relating to housing details, demographic characteristics and health behaviours taken from the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Hierarchical linear regression models estimate CRP for individual housing characteristics, and all available housing characteristics, controlling for confounders.

Results indicate that housing tenure, type, cost burden and desire to stay in current home are associated with CRP. Private renters have significantly higher (worse) CRP than owners with a mortgage. In terms of housing type, respondents living in detached homes had lower CRP than those in semidetached or terraced houses, or those living in flats. Housing cost burden is associated with lower CRP, although further analysis indicates that this is the case only for low-income renters. Desire to stay in current home is significantly associated with higher CRP.

A number of housing characteristics were associated with CRP. These results further support an important role for housing in health.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere211431
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Issue number3
Early online date14 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • biomarkers
  • Great Britain
  • health
  • housing
  • inflammation


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