How to incorporate patient and public perspectives into the design and conduct of research

Pat Hoddinott, Alex Pollock, Alicia O'Cathain, Isabel Boyer, Jane M D Taylor, Chris Macdonald, Sandy Oliver, Jenny L Donovan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)
342 Downloads (Pure)


International government guidance recommends patient and public involvement (PPI) to improve the relevance and quality of research. PPI is defined as research being carried out ‘with’ or ‘by’ patients and members of the public rather than ’to’, ‘about’ or ‘for’ them ( Patient involvement is different from collecting data from patients as participants. Ethical considerations also differ. PPI is about patients actively contributing through discussion to decisions about research design, acceptability, relevance, conduct and governance from study conception to dissemination. Occasionally patients lead or do research. The research methods of PPI range from informal discussions to partnership research approaches such as action research, co-production and co-learning.

This article discusses how researchers can involve patients when they are applying for research funding and considers some opportunities and pitfalls. It reviews research funder requirements, draws on the literature and our collective experiences as clinicians, patients, academics and members of UK funding panels.
Original languageEnglish
Article number752
Number of pages33
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2018

Structured keywords

  • Centre for Surgical Research


  • Public and Patient Involvement
  • Public Engagement
  • Qualitative research
  • Research Methods
  • Co-production
  • Partnership approaches


Dive into the research topics of 'How to incorporate patient and public perspectives into the design and conduct of research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this