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How to incorporate patient and public perspectives into the design and conduct of research

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Pat Hoddinott
  • Alex Pollock
  • Alicia O'Cathain
  • Isabel Boyer
  • Jane M D Taylor
  • Chris Macdonald
  • Sandy Oliver
  • Jenny L Donovan
Original languageEnglish
Article number752
Number of pages33
DateAccepted/In press - 8 Jun 2018
DatePublished (current) - 18 Jun 2018


International government guidance recommends patient and public involvement (PPI) to improve the relevance and quality of research. PPI is defined as research being carried out ‘with’ or ‘by’ patients and members of the public rather than ’to’, ‘about’ or ‘for’ them ( Patient involvement is different from collecting data from patients as participants. Ethical considerations also differ. PPI is about patients actively contributing through discussion to decisions about research design, acceptability, relevance, conduct and governance from study conception to dissemination. Occasionally patients lead or do research. The research methods of PPI range from informal discussions to partnership research approaches such as action research, co-production and co-learning.

This article discusses how researchers can involve patients when they are applying for research funding and considers some opportunities and pitfalls. It reviews research funder requirements, draws on the literature and our collective experiences as clinicians, patients, academics and members of UK funding panels.

    Structured keywords

  • Centre for Surgical Research

    Research areas

  • Public and Patient Involvement, Public Engagement, Qualitative research, Research Methods, Co-production, Partnership approaches

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    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via F1000 Research at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

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    Licence: CC BY


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