Methods and Results: APCs were immunomagnetically sorted from saphenous vein leftovers of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery and antigenically characterized for purity. Unlike bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), APCs were resistant to calcification and delayed osteochondrogenic differentiation upon high phosphate (HP) induction, as assessed by cytochemistry and expression of osteogenic markers. Moreover, glycolysis was activated during osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs, whereas APCs showed no increase in glycolysis upon HP challenge. The microRNA-132-3p (miR-132), a known inhibitor of osteogenesis, was found constitutively expressed by APCs and upregulated following HP stimulation. The anti-calcific role of miR-132 was further corroborated by in silico analysis, luciferase assays in HEK293 cells, and transfecting APCs with miR-132 agomir and antagomir, followed by assessment of osteochondrogenic markers. Interestingly, treatment of swine cardiac valves with APC-derived conditioned medium conferred them with resistance to HP-induced osteogenesis, with this effect being negated when using the medium of miR-132-silenced APCs. Additionally, as an initial bioengineering step, APCs were successfully engrafted onto pericardium sheets, where they proliferated and promoted aortic endothelial cells attraction, a process mimicking valve endothelialization.
Conclusions: Human APCs are resistant to calcification compared with BM-MSCs and convey the anti-calcific phenotype to heart valves through miR-132. These findings may open new important avenues for prosthetic valve cellularization.
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 13 Jan 2021|