Ice formation and production in subcooled environments

Xiao Yun, Alastair Hales, Joe Quarini, Eddie Lucas, Dan McBryde

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference Contribution (Conference Proceeding)


Generating ice in a fluid immiscible with water is relatively easy but considerably more difficult if the fluid is hydrophilic. The paper presents experimental data where pure water is introduced into a subcooled environment made of brine at high concentrations. Rate of heat transfer between the two fluids is found higher than that of mass transfer and ice is formed as a result. Flow rheology, hence the active surface area where phase change occurs, of the injected water stream and brine temperature and concentration are found to be the key factors influencing how much ice can be made in the process. Conversion ratio of two ice collection methods are compared over a range of brine temperatures and concentrations. The washing method (wet collection) was found to collect up to 27% more ice than dry collection. Washing is also very effective in rinsing off the brine and salt on the ice's surface from and the bulk salinity would drop from 13% to 1 %. The data further suggests that the method promises to achieve higher efficiency than a scraped surface ice maker and it is simpler in that it requires no complex mechanical harvesting equipment, and with the vast liquid-liquid surface areas possible, promises to be able to produce high quantities of ice per unit volume of equipment. In addition, the required higher evaporator setting can increase the coefficient of performance, COP, of the refrigeration system and hence further energy savings.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 14th UK Heat Transfer Conference (Edinburgh 7-8 Sept 2015)
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event14th UK Heat Transfer Conference - Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Duration: 7 Sep 20158 Sep 2015


Conference14th UK Heat Transfer Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom


  • Ice pigging
  • Ice nucleation
  • ice production

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