Ice Generation and the Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena of Introducing Water to a Cold Bath of Brine

Xiao Yun, Joe Quarini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
224 Downloads (Pure)


We demonstrate a method for the study of the heat and mass transfer and of the freezing phenomena in a subcooled brine environment. Our experiment showed that, under the proper conditions, ice can be produced when water is introduced to a bath of cold brine. To make ice form, in addition to having the brine and water mix, the rate of heat transfer must bypass that of mass transfer. When water is introduced in the form of tiny droplets to the brine surface, the mode of heat and mass transfer is by diffusion. The buoyancy stops water from mixing with the brine underneath, but as the ice grows thicker, it slows down the rate of heat transfer, making ice more difficult to grow as a result. When water is introduced inside the brine in the form of a flow, a number of factors are found to influence how much ice can form. Brine temperature and concentration, which are the driving forces of heat and mass transfer, respectively, can affect the water-to-ice conversion ratio; lower bath temperatures and brine concentrations encourage more ice to form. The flow rheology, which can directly affect both the heat and mass transfer coefficients, is also a key factor. In addition, the flow rheology changes the area of contact of the flow with the bulk fluid.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere55014
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number121
Early online date13 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2017


  • heat and mass transfer
  • convection
  • diffusion
  • advection
  • phase transformation
  • ice formation
  • latent heat of fusion
  • flow rheology
  • freezing
  • Reynolds analogy
  • coefficient of performance (COP)


Dive into the research topics of 'Ice Generation and the Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena of Introducing Water to a Cold Bath of Brine'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this