Illustrations of interactions needed when investigating sleep using a type of AM-PM PM-AM design

Laura B Mickes*, David Morgan, Dario Fuentes Grandon, Stewart Boogert, Nina Kazanina

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Sleep has long been thought of and promoted to be beneficial for memory. Some claims that sleep aids memory have been made in the absence of a critical interaction. This condition is necessary when using a commonly-used experimental design (a type of AM-PM PM-AM design). We propose that a sleep effect exists only if there is an interaction between groups (experimental and time-of-day controls) and the time of test or study (morning and evening). We show different patterns of results that would and would not support a sleep effect with empirical and model-generated data from recognition memory experiments and hypothetical data. While we use these data to make our point, our suggestions apply to any memory and non-memory-related investigation (e.g., emotional memory, false memory susceptibility, language learning, problem-solving, etc.). Testing for and finding the proper interaction will add to the evidence that sleep boosts performance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2106–2115
Number of pages10
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Early online date15 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


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