Imagination and Natural Movement: The Bray Studios and the "Invention" of Animated Film

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This article examines how animated film’s identity was formulated and negotiated during a key period in its consolidation, from 1914 to 1920. Focusing on the Bray Studios, it examines how J. R. Bray envisioned the form of animation and how related ideas of animation were used within animated series produced at his studio, particularly the Bobby Bumps series. Tracing prominent discursive and aesthetic formations of animated film’s place within contexts of other media, its relation to industry and art, and its aesthetics of motion, the article explores how animated film was figured as a new medium.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)130-150
Number of pages21
JournalFilm History
Issue number4
Early online date1 Dec 2015
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • animated film
  • intermediality
  • motion
  • Bray Studios
  • media identity
  • cel animation


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  • Ideaof Animation

    Jackson, V. & Moen, K. O.


    Project: Research


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