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Impact of Opioid Substitution Therapy on Antiretroviral Therapy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1094-1104
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume63
Issue number8
Early online date25 Jun 2016
DOIs
DateAccepted/In press - 15 Jun 2016
DateE-pub ahead of print - 25 Jun 2016
DatePublished (current) - 15 Oct 2016

Abstract

BACKGROUND:  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) frequently encounter barriers accessing and remaining on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Some studies have suggested that opioid substitution therapy (OST) could facilitate PWID's engagement with HIV services. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of concurrent OST use on ART-related outcomes among HIV-infected PWID.

METHODS:  We searched Medline, PsycInfo, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Social Policy and Practice databases for studies between 1996 to November 2014 documenting the impact of OST, compared to no OST, on ART outcomes. Outcomes considered were coverage and recruitment onto ART, adherence, viral suppression, attrition from ART, and mortality. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects modeling, and heterogeneity assessed using Cochran Q test and I(2) statistic.

RESULTS:  We identified 4685 articles, and 32 studies conducted in North America, Europe, Indonesia, and China were included. OST was associated with a 69% increase in recruitment onto ART (hazard ratio [HR], 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.15), a 54% increase in ART coverage (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.17-2.03), a 2-fold increase in adherence (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.41-3.26), and a 23% decrease in the odds of attrition (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, .63-.95). OST was associated with a 45% increase in odds of viral suppression (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21-1.73), but there was limited evidence from 6 studies for OST decreasing mortality for PWID on ART (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, .65-1.25).

CONCLUSIONS:  These findings support the use of OST, and its integration with HIV services, to improve the HIV treatment and care continuum among HIV-infected PWID.

    Research areas

  • HIV, people who inject drugs (PWID), medication-assisted therapy for opioid dependence (MAT), antiretroviral treatment (ART), systematic review

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    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via Oxford University Press at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/8/1094/suppl/DC1. Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

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    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via Oxford University Press at http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/63/8/1094/suppl/DC1. Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Final published version, 830 KB, PDF document

    Licence: CC BY-NC-ND

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