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Titanium (Ti) plays a predominant role as the material of choice in orthopaedic and dental implants. Despite the majority of Ti implants having long-term success, premature failure due to unsuccessful osseointegration leading to aseptic loosening is still too common. Recently, surface topography modification and biological/non-biological coatings have been integrated into orthopaedic/dental implants in order to mimic the surrounding biological environment as well as reduce the inflammation/infection that may occur. In this review, we summarize the impact of various Ti coatings on cell behaviour both in vivo and in vitro. First, we focus on the Ti surface properties and their effects on osteogenesis and then on bacterial adhesion and viability. We conclude from the current literature that surface modification of Ti implants can be generated that offer both osteoinductive and antimicrobial properties.