Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome

Angeliki Papadaki*, Manolis Linardakis, Maria Plada, Thomas M. Larsen, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Marleen A. van Baak, Susan Jebb, Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer, J. Alfredo Martinez, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Marie Kunesova, Claus Holst, Wim H. M. Saris, Arne Astrup, Anthony Kafatos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.

Methods: Secondary analyses were performed within the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study (2006-2008), a randomized controlled dietary intervention. Nine hundred and thirty-eight overweight and obese adults from eight European countries entered an 8-wk low-calorie-diet period. Seven hundred and seventy-three adults who lost at least 8% of their body weights were randomized to one of five ad libitum diets for 6 mo: 1) low-protein (LP)/low-GI (LGI); 2) LP/high-GI (HGI); 3) high-protein (HP)/LGI; 4) HP/HGI; and 5) control diet. MetSyn prevalence and a standardized MetSyn score were assessed at baseline, after the low-calorie diet, and after the intervention.

Results: Weight loss among participants while on the low-calorie diet significantly reduced MetSyn prevalence (33.9% versus 15.9%; P <0.001) and MetSyn score (-1.48 versus -4.45; P <0.001). During weight maintenance, significant changes in MetSyn score were observed between the groups, with the highest increase detected in the LP/HGI group (P = 0.039, partial eta(2) = 0.023). Protein, GI, and their interaction did not have isolated effects on study outcomes.

Conclusions: Neither protein nor Cl affected MetSyn status in this sample of European overweight and obese adults. However, a diet with a combination of an increased protein-to-carbohydrate ratio with low-GI foods had beneficial effects on MetSyn factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-417
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition
Volume30
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

Keywords

  • DiOGenes
  • Obesity
  • Protein
  • Glycemic index
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Dietary intervention
  • OBESE WOMEN
  • CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
  • BODY-COMPOSITION
  • CONTROLLED-TRIAL
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • ADULT WOMEN
  • CARBOHYDRATE
  • OVERWEIGHT
  • INSULIN
  • FAT

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