Implications of Cardiovascular Disease for Assessment and Treatment of Nocturia in Primary Care: Systematic Review and Nominal Group Technique Consensus

Paulina Beuno Garcia Reyes, Karen Butcher, Nikki Cotterill, Marcus J Drake*, Amy Gimson, Laisha Gogola, Emily J Henderson, Alyson L Huntley, Jonathan Rees, Ed Strong, Chih Wong, Andrew P. Skyrme-Jones, Shoba Dawson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review


Heart conditions affect salt and water homeostasis as a consequence of the underlying condition, compensatory processes, and therapy, and can result in nocturnal polyuria. These processes need to be identified as part of a full evaluation of nocturia.

To conduct a systematic review of nocturia in cardiovascular disease and achieve expert consensus for primary care management. Primary care was defined as a health care setting in which the expertise did not include specialist cardiology.

Evidence acquisition
Four databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2020. A total of 3524 titles and abstracts were screened and 27 studies underwent full-text screening. Of these, eight studies were included in the analysis. The nominal group technique (NGT) was used to achieve consensus among an expert panel incorporating public involvement.

Evidence synthesis
Most studies focused on nocturia related to blood pressure (BP), while one investigated leg oedema. Hypertension, particularly overnight blood pressure above normal, corresponds with higher risk of nocturia. NGT identified fluid and salt overload, nondipping hypertension, and some therapeutic interventions as key nocturia contributors. History taking and examination should identify raised jugular venous pressure/ankle swelling, with relevant investigations including measurement of BP, resting electrocardiogram, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Treatment recommends reducing salt (including substitutes), alcohol and caffeine. Heart failure is managed according to local guidance and controlling fluid intake to 1–2 l daily. If there is no fluid retention, reduce or discontinue diuretics or calcium channel blockers and follow up to reassess the condition. The target clinic blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg.

Cardiovascular disease and its treatment are influential for understanding nocturia. Management aims to identify and treat heart failure and/or hypertension.

Patient summary
People with cardiovascular disease can suffer severe sleep disturbance because of a need to pass urine at night due to increased overnight blood pressure or heart failure. Following a detailed evaluation of the published research, a group of experts recommended practical approaches for assessing and treating these issues.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Urology Focus
Issue number1
Early online date12 Jan 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding/Support and role of the sponsor: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) programme (grant reference number NIHR RfPB PB-PG-1217-20034). The sponsor played no direct role in the study. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 European Association of Urology


  • Nocturia
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Cardiovascular
  • Systematic review
  • Nominal Group Technique


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