In Situ Observations of Halogenated Gases at the Shangdianzi Background Station and Emission Estimates for Northern China

Liying Yi, Minde An, Haibo Yu, Zhiqiang Ma, Lin Xu, Simon O'Doherty, Matthew L Rigby, Luke M Western, Anita L Ganesan, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, Yunxing Hu, Jianxin Hu, Weiguang Xu*, Bo Yao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Abstract

Halogenated gases include ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons, halons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorinated gases. In situ atmospheric observations of major halogenated gases were conducted at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) background station, China, from October 2020 to September 2021 using ODS5-pro, a newly developed measurement system. The measurement time series of 36 halogenated gases showed occasional pollution events, where background conditions represented 25% (CH2Cl2) to 81% (CF3Cl, CFC-13) of the measurements. The annual mean background mole fractions of most species at SDZ were consistent with those obtained at the Mace Head station in Ireland. The background conditions were distinguished from pollution events, and the enhanced mole fractions were used to estimate the emissions of four categories of fluorinated gases (F-gases) from northern China using a tracer ratio method. The CO2-equivalent (CO2-equiv) emission of F-gases from northern China reached 181 ± 18 Tg year–1 during 2020–2021. Among the four categories of F-gases estimated, SF6 accounted for the highest proportion of CO2-equiv emissions (24%), followed by HFC-23 (22%), HFC-125 (17%), HFC-134a (13%), NF3 (10%), CF4 (5.9%), HFC-143a (3.9%), HFC-32 (3.4%), and HFC-152a (0.2%).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7217-7229
Number of pages13
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume57
Issue number18
Early online date26 Apr 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (grant no. 2019YFC0214502), the Opening Research Fund of Shangdianzi National Atmospheric Background Station (grant no. SDZ20220914), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement (grant no. 101030750), and the Natural Environment Research Council (grant no. NE/S004211/1 and NE/V002996/1). The station at Mace Head is supported by the UK Department of Business Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) (Contract number: TRN1537/06/2018). The operation and calibration of the global AGAGE measurement network are supported by NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Program through grants NAG5-12669, NNX07AE89G, NNX11AF17G, and NNX16AC98G (to MIT) and NNX07AE87G, NNX07AF09G, NNX11AF15G, and NNX11AF16G (to SIO). Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) is acknowledged for providing the calibration standards. The authors thank all the personnel involved in ODS5-pro development and sample measurements.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

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