Increase in HFC-134a emissions in response to the success of the Montreal Protocol

A. Fortems-Cheiney*, M. Saunois, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, C. Cressot, S. A. Montzka, P. J. Fraser, M. K. Vollmer, Peter G Simmonds, T D S Young, Simon O'Doherty, R. F. Weiss, F. Artuso, B. Barletta, D. R. Blake, S. Li, C. Lunder, B. R. Miller, S. ParkS. Park, R. Prinn, T. Saito, L. P. Steele, Y. Yokouchi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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The 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), an important alternative to CFC-12 in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, is a high global warming potential greenhouse gas. Here we evaluate variations in global and regional HFC-134a emissions and emission trends, from 1995 to 2010, at a relatively high spatial and temporal (3.75° in longitude × 2.5° in latitude and 8 day) resolution, using surface HFC-134a measurements. Our results show a progressive increase of global HFC-134a emissions from 19 ± 2 Gg/yr in 1995 to 167 ± 5 Gg/yr in 2010, with both a slowdown in developed countries and a 20%/yr increase in China since 2005. A seasonal cycle is also seen since 2002, which becomes enhanced over time, with larger values during the boreal summer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11728-11742
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Issue number22
Early online date18 Nov 2015
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2015


  • HFC-134a
  • inverse modeling

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