Individuals and their ecologies: analysing the geography of chronic illness within a multilevel modelling framework

Kelvyn Jones*, Craig Duncan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

207 Citations (Scopus)


This paper argues for the importance of place differences in understanding chronic illness. A conceptual distinction is drawn between individual and ecological effects and it is argued that aggregate analysis provides an inappropriate methodology for studying place differences. Multilevel modelling, in contrast, allows For the simultaneous analysis of individuals and their ecologies. This approach is applied to data derived from a nationally representative sample of over 9 000 United Kingdom individuals in nearly 400 places.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-40
Number of pages14
JournalHealth and Place
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1995


  • chronic illness
  • multilevel models
  • ecological analysis
  • contextual effects
  • geographical differences

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