Inference in Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression

Hanchen Yu, A. Stewart Fotheringham*, Ziqi Li, Taylor Oshan, Wei Kang, Levi John Wolf

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)


A recent paper expands the well-known geographically weighted regression (GWR) framework significantly by allowing the bandwidth or smoothing factor in GWR to be derived separately for each covariate in the model—a framework referred to as multiscale GWR (MGWR). However, one limitation of the MGWR framework is that, until now, no inference about the local parameter estimates was possible. Formally, the so-called “hat matrix,” which projects the observed response vector into the predicted response vector, was available in GWR but not in MGWR. This paper addresses this limitation by reframing GWR as a Generalized Additive Model, extending this framework to MGWR and then deriving standard errors for the local parameters in MGWR. In addition, we also demonstrate how the effective number of parameters can be obtained for the overall fit of an MGWR model and for each of the covariates within the model. This statistic is essential for comparing model fit between MGWR, GWR, and traditional global models, as well as for adjusting multiple hypothesis tests. We demonstrate these advances to the MGWR framework with both a simulated data set and a real-world data set and provide a link to new software for MGWR (MGWR1.0) which includes the novel inferential framework for MGWR described here.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-106
Number of pages20
JournalGeographical Analysis
Issue number1
Early online date22 Jan 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

The acceptance date for this record is provisional and based upon the month of publication for the article.


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