Inflammation involves alterations to vascular and immune cell function. It is well recognised that many physiological reproductive events such as ovulation, menstruation, implantation and onset of labour display hallmark signs of inflammation. These are orchestrated by specific molecular pathways involving a host of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Resumption of normal reproductive function involves prompt and proper resolution of these inflammatory pathways. Recent literature confirms that resolution of inflammatory pathways involves specific biochemical events that are activated to re-establish homeostasis in the affected tissue. Moreover, initiation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways are the key components of many pathologies of the reproductive tract and elsewhere in the body. The onset of reproductive disorders or disease may be the result of exacerbated activation and maintenance of inflammatory pathways or their dysregulated resolution. This review will address the role of inflammatory events in normal reproductive function and its pathologies.