Influence of temperature and humidity manipulation on chicken embryonic development

Rute Garcia da Noiva, António C Menezes, Maria C Peleteiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)
271 Downloads (Pure)


BACKGROUND: Temperature and relative humidity (RH) are very important factors affecting embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch performance. This study aimed at characterizing embryonic metabolic and behavioural response to a harsh incubation environment generated by manipulations (elevations and drops) in these two key factors. This study was aimed at establishing patterns of metabolic and behavioural response, as well as mortality and the development of malformations, all of which can potentially be used in monitoring incubating operations and diagnosing problems with faulty equipment.

RESULTS: Of all the parameters monitored throughout embryonic development the ones shown to be most affected were: albumen-weight to egg-weight ratio (AR); yolk-weight to egg-weight ratio (YR); embryo-weight to egg-weight ratio (ER); heart rate (HR); voluntary movements per minute (VMM); mortality rates; malformation prevalence and type. The most significant changes in the evolution of AR and YR throughout incubation involved delay and reduction in the amplitude of the expected drop in albumen and yolk levels, reflecting lower nutrient consumption by the embryo. ER tended to grow more slowly and remain lower than the established normal, especially in embryos challenged with temperature treatments. HR and VMM were considered to be strong indicators of embryonic stress, as all treatments applied resulted in elevated heart rate and decreased embryo movement. Mortality rates for both temperature-related treatments were higher during the first four days of incubation. Changes in relative humidity have produced less radical effects on mortality. Malformation rates were higher for embryos subjected to high incubation temperatures and were most prominently related to the abdominal wall, head, skull and limbs. Overall, manipulations in environmental (incubator) temperature during incubation produced more drastic changes in embryo development than humidity-related manipulations, especially where mortality and malformation rates were concerned.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes changes in embryonic metabolism and behaviour, as well as in mortality and malformation rates, in response to manipulations in environmental temperature and relative humidity. Together with further studies, these patterns may prove helpful in the diagnosis of equipment malfunctions relating to temperature or relative humidity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number234
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Veterinary Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2014


  • Albumins
  • Animals
  • Chick Embryo
  • Cold Temperature
  • Egg Yolk
  • Heart Rate
  • Humidity
  • Movement
  • Temperature
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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