climate oscillations. Palynological data are complemented by biomarker, diatom, carbonate isotope and sedimentological data to identify the mechanisms controlling shifts in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems within the lake and its catchment. The study interval encompasses four complete glacial-interglacial cycles (1365e1165 ka; MIS 43e35). Within the first 100 kyr of lake ontogeny, lake size and depth increase before the lake system enters a new equilibrium state as observed in a distinct shift in biotic communities and sediment composition. Several relict tree genera such as Cedrus, Tsuga, Carya, and Pterocarya played an important role in ecological succession cycles, while total relict abundance accounts for up to half of the total arboreal vegetation. The most prominent biome during interglacials is cool mixed evergreen needleleaf and deciduous broadleaf forests, while cool evergreen needleleaf forests
dominate within glacials. A rather forested landscape with a remarkable plant diversity provide unique
insights into Early Pleistocene ecosystem resilience and vegetation dynamics.
- Mediterranean region, Mid-altitude refugium, Relicts, Vegetation succession, Pollen-based biome reconstruction, Palynological richness, Microscopic charcoal, Lipid biomarkers, Diatoms, Stable isotopes