Skip to content

Integrating quantitative and qualitative data and findings when undertaking randomised controlled trials

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere032081
Number of pages5
JournalBMJ Open
DateAccepted/In press - 6 Nov 2019
DatePublished (current) - 26 Nov 2019


It is common to undertake qualitative research alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) when evaluating complex interventions. Researchers tend to analyse these datasets separately and then consider their findings separately within the discussion section of the final report, rarely integrating quantitative and qualitative data or findings, and missing opportunities to integrate data in order to generate further important insights about the intervention under evaluation. This paper reports on a two day expert meeting funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council Hubs for Trials Methodology Research with the aims to identify current strengths and weaknesses in the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in clinical trials, establish the next steps required to provide the trials community with guidance on the integration of mixed methods in RCTs and set-up a network of individuals, groups and organisations willing to collaborate on related methodological activity.

We summarise integration techniques and highlight the potential value of integration using three examples. We suggest that applying mixed methods integration techniques to data or findings from studies involving both RCTs and qualitative research can yield insights that might be useful for understanding variation in outcomes, the mechanism by which interventions have an impact, and identifying ways of tailoring therapy to patient preference and type. Given a general lack of examples and knowledge of these techniques, researchers and funders will need future guidance on how to undertake and appraise them.

    Research areas

  • qualitative, randomised controlled trials, research methods, integration, trials, quantitative

Download statistics

No data available



  • Full-text PDF (final published version)

    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via BMJ Publishing Group at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Final published version, 579 KB, PDF document

    Licence: CC BY


View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups