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Intelligence, education and health, evidence from bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization

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@article{c1ea24615d3541b9a09c47146c21aa29,
title = "Intelligence, education and health, evidence from bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization",
abstract = "Intelligence and education are predictive of better physical and mental health, socioeconomic position (SEP), and longevity. However, these associations are insufficient to prove that intelligence and/or education cause these outcomes. Intelligence and education are phenotypically and genetically correlated, which makes it difficult to elucidate causal relationships. We used univariate and multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the total and direct effects of intelligence and educational attainment on mental and physical health, measures of socioeconomic position, and longevity. Both intelligence and education had beneficial total effects. Higher intelligence had positive direct effects on income and alcohol consumption, and negative direct effects on moderate and vigorous physical activity. Higher educational attainment had positive direct effects on income, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity, and negative direct effects on smoking, BMI and sedentary behaviour. If the Mendelian randomization assumptions hold, these findings suggest that intelligence and education are potential interventions targets for improving health.",
keywords = "Mendelian randomization, UK Biobank, intelligence, Education",
author = "Neil Davies and Hill, {W. David} and Emma Anderson and Eleanor Sanderson and Deary, {Ian J} and {Davey Smith}, George",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "8",
language = "English",
journal = "eLife",
issn = "2050-084X",
publisher = "eLife Sciences Publications",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Intelligence, education and health, evidence from bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization

AU - Davies, Neil

AU - Hill, W. David

AU - Anderson, Emma

AU - Sanderson, Eleanor

AU - Deary, Ian J

AU - Davey Smith, George

PY - 2019/7/8

Y1 - 2019/7/8

N2 - Intelligence and education are predictive of better physical and mental health, socioeconomic position (SEP), and longevity. However, these associations are insufficient to prove that intelligence and/or education cause these outcomes. Intelligence and education are phenotypically and genetically correlated, which makes it difficult to elucidate causal relationships. We used univariate and multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the total and direct effects of intelligence and educational attainment on mental and physical health, measures of socioeconomic position, and longevity. Both intelligence and education had beneficial total effects. Higher intelligence had positive direct effects on income and alcohol consumption, and negative direct effects on moderate and vigorous physical activity. Higher educational attainment had positive direct effects on income, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity, and negative direct effects on smoking, BMI and sedentary behaviour. If the Mendelian randomization assumptions hold, these findings suggest that intelligence and education are potential interventions targets for improving health.

AB - Intelligence and education are predictive of better physical and mental health, socioeconomic position (SEP), and longevity. However, these associations are insufficient to prove that intelligence and/or education cause these outcomes. Intelligence and education are phenotypically and genetically correlated, which makes it difficult to elucidate causal relationships. We used univariate and multivariable Mendelian randomization to estimate the total and direct effects of intelligence and educational attainment on mental and physical health, measures of socioeconomic position, and longevity. Both intelligence and education had beneficial total effects. Higher intelligence had positive direct effects on income and alcohol consumption, and negative direct effects on moderate and vigorous physical activity. Higher educational attainment had positive direct effects on income, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity, and negative direct effects on smoking, BMI and sedentary behaviour. If the Mendelian randomization assumptions hold, these findings suggest that intelligence and education are potential interventions targets for improving health.

KW - Mendelian randomization

KW - UK Biobank

KW - intelligence

KW - Education

M3 - Article

JO - eLife

JF - eLife

SN - 2050-084X

ER -