Background: Triadin knockout syndrome (TKOS) is a rare, inherited arrhythmia syndrome caused by recessive null mutations in TRDN-encoded cardiac triadin. Based previously on 5 triadin null patients, TKOS has been characterized by extensive T-wave inversions, transient QT prolongation, and severe disease expression of exercise-induced cardiac arrest in early childhood refractory to conventional therapy. Methods: We have established the International Triadin Knockout Syndrome Registry to include patients who have genetically proven homozygous/compound heterozygous TRDN null mutations. Clinical/genetic data were collected using an online survey generated through REDCap. Results: Currently, the International Triadin Knockout Syndrome Registry includes 21 patients (11 males, average age of 18 years) from 16 families. Twenty patients (95%) presented with either cardiac arrest (15, 71%) or syncope (5, 24%) at an average age of 3 years. Mild skeletal myopathy/proximal muscle weakness was noted in 6 (29%) patients. Of the 19 surviving patients, 16 (84%) exhibit T-wave inversions, and 10 (53%) have transient QT prolongation > 480 ms. Eight of 9 patients had ventricular ectopy on exercise stress testing. Thirteen (68%) patients have received implantable defibrillators. Despite various treatment strategies, 14 (74%) patients have had recurrent breakthrough cardiac events. Conclusion: TKOS is a potentially lethal disease characterized by T-wave inversions in the precordial leads, transient QT prolongation in some, and recurrent ventricular arrhythmias at a young age despite aggressive treatment. Patients displaying this phenotype should undergo TRDN genetic testing as TKOS may be a cause for otherwise unexplained cardiac arrest in young children. As gene therapy advances, enrollment into the International Triadin Knockout Syndrome Registry is encouraged to better understand TKOS and to ready a well-characterized cohort for future TRDN gene therapy trials.
- long QT syndrome